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Bail Laws for State District Of Columbia

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Bail Laws
I. Applicable Statutes

A. DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA CODE 1981 PART IV. CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE AND PRISONERS. TITLE 23. CRIMINAL PROCEDURE.CHAPTER 11. Professional Bondsmen.

B. MICHIE'S DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA COURT RULES ANNOTATED SUPERIOR COURT RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE XI. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.Rule 116. Bonds and sureties.

II. Licensing Requirements for Agents

*** The District of Columbia’s statutes do not appear to clearly outline the powers of professional bondsmen in regard to recovering bail. The statutes define a "bondsman" as anyone engaged in the bonding business, including agents. Therefore, some of the more pertinent qualifications – in regard to individuals and for licensing purposes – for sureities are given below, since both sureties and bondsmen appear to be able to carry out activities associated with the bonding business.

A. DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA CODE 1981 PART IV. CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE AND PRISONERS. TITLE 23. CRIMINAL PROCEDURE. CHAPTER 11. Professional Bondsmen.§ 23-1101 Definitions.

1. The term "bondsman" means any person or corporation engaged in the bonding business either as a principal or as an agent, clerk, or representative of another engaged in such business.

2. § 23-1108 Qualifications of bondsmen; rules to be prescribed by courts; list of agents to be furnished; renewal of authority to act; detailed records to be kept; penalties and disqualifications.

3. Duty of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia and the Superior Court of the District of Columbia, to provide, the qualifications of persons and corporations applying for authority to engage in the bonding business in criminal cases in the District of Columbia, and the terms and conditions upon which the business shall be carried on, and no person or corporation shall, either as principal, or as agent, or representative of another, engage in the bonding business in either court until he shall, by order of the court, be authorized to do so.

4. The courts shall take into consideration both the financial responsibility and the moral qualities of the person so applying, and no person shall be permitted to engage, either as principal or agent, in the bonding business, who has ever been convicted of an offense involving moral turpitude, or who is not known to be a person of good moral character.

5. Every person qualifying to engage in the bonding business as principal is required to file with the court a list showing the name, age, and residence of each person employed by the bondsman as agent, clerk, or representative in the bonding business, and an affidavit from each of these persons stating that he will abide by the terms and provisions of this chapter.

6. Each of the courts shall require the authority of each of those persons to be renewed from time to time at such periods as the court may by rule provide, and before the authority shall be renewed the court shall require from each of those persons an affidavit that since his previous qualification to engage in the bonding business he has abided by the provisions of this chapter, and any person swearing falsely in any of the affidavits shall be guilty of perjury.

7. Whoever violates any rule or regulation prescribed under this subsection shall be fined not more than $500 or imprisoned not more than six months, or both, and if he is a bondsman shall be disqualified from thereafter engaging in any manner in the bonding business for such period of time as the trial judge shall order.

B. MICHIE'S DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA COURT RULES ANNOTATED SUPERIOR COURT RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE XI. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS. Rule 116. Bonds and sureties.

1. Except by Court order no person shall be authorized to engage in the bonding business in criminal cases in this Court. No order of authorization shall be entered until such application and such supporting documents as are hereinafter required shall have been filed and the approval by this Court shall have been noted thereon.

2. Contents of application. Every individual proposing to engage in the bonding business in criminal cases in this Court shall file with the Court a written application which shall set forth the following information and statements under oath:

a. A detailed listing of real estate owned by the applicant in the District of Columbia, including: the address, lot, value, date of title, purchase price, the liber and folio of the land records; that the property is not encumbered; improvements; the nature and extent of a spouse's title or interest;

b. The amount of the applicant's unsecured indebtedness and obligations;

c. Whether the applicant is, or has been, in default in the payment of forfeited bail bond or recognizance in any court in the District of Columbia, the amount of bail bond or recognizance on any default recited, the date of forfeiture, the court, title and number of the cause in which such forfeiture was declared;

d. Whether the applicant has ever been arrested, charged or convicted of any offense;

e. Proof of applicant's good moral character, attested by the statements of at least 2 residents of the District of Columbia not related to the applicant, and who shall so certify;

f. A declaration by the applicant that the applicant will in all respects abide by the terms and provisions of these Rules and Chapter 11 of Title 23 of the D.C. Code;

g. A listing of the name, age and residence of each and every person authorized to represent the applicant as agent, clerk or representative in the bonding business, accompanied by an affidavit from each person listed, declaring that the person will in all respects abide by the terms and provisions of these Rules and Chapter 11 of said Title 23;

h. Each person holding a power of attorney from an authorized individual surety shall file a duplicate original copy thereof with the Clerk of this Court;

i. The application shall also recite a declaration to which the applicant shall fully agree and subscribe in which he or she commits not to sell, convey, or mortgage any listed real estate without obtaining leave of the court.

3. Applications shall be filed on or before the 10th day of January of each 2nd year thereafter, or oftener if required by the Court, by each individual surety desiring to continue in said business, which application must receive the approval of the Court before the surety shall be entitled to continue to appear as surety on bonds or recognizances in this Court.

4. With each application for renewal there shall also be filed an affidavit to the effect that since the surety's previous qualifications the surety has in all respects abided by the terms and provisions of these Rules and Chapter 11 of said Title 23, together with a certificate of the Clerk of this Court wherein it is stated that the Clerk has examined the records of the applicant and found them to be in good order as to form.

5. The original application of every individual proposing to engage in the bonding business, and every application for renewal of authority to continue herein, shall state the aggregate amount of bonds or recognizance in any court of the District of Columbia upon which such person is surety.

6. Fingerprinting. The applicant shall submit to the taking of the applicant's fingerprints by the Clerk of this Court, as shall each person authorized to represent the applicant as agent, clerk or representative in the bonding business. On all renewals, the Clerk of the Court, with the approval of the Chief Judge, may waive the requirement for refingerprinting.

(For further information on authorization of sureites, see the entire section listed above).

III. Notice of Forfeiture

A. MICHIE'S DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA COURT RULES ANNOTATED SUPERIOR COURT RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE XI. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS. Rule 116. Bonds and sureties.

1. Forfeiture of bail.
Declaration. If there is a breach of condition of a bond, the Court shall declare a forfeiture of the bail.

2. When a forfeiture has not been set aside, the Court shall on motion enter a judgment of default and execution may issue thereon. By entering into a bond the obligors submit to the jurisdiction of the Court and irrevocably appoint the Clerk of the Court as their agent upon whom any papers affecting their liability may be served. Their liability may be enforced on motion without the necessity of an independent action. The motion and such notice of the motion as the Court prescribes may be served on the Clerk of the Court, who shall forthwith mail copies to the obligors at their last known addresses.

B. Court decisions

American Bankers Ins. Co. v. United States, App. D.C., 596 A.2d 598 (1991). Bonding company that had constructive notice of defendant's failure to appear at status hearing or trial, was not denied due process where appearance bond was forfeited, and superior court delayed for nearly 13 months its notifying bonding company of forfeiture.

IV. Allotted Time between Forfeiture Declaration and Payment Due Date.

(No additional provisions appear to be given in the statutes in regard to timetables for payment of forfeitures other than those listed above).

V. Forfeiture Defenses

A. MICHIE'S DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA COURT RULES ANNOTATED SUPERIOR COURT RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE XI. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.

Rule 116. Bonds and sureties.

1. The Court may direct that a forfeiture be set aside, upon such conditions as the Court may impose, if it appears that justice does not require the enforcement of the forfeiture.

2. No forfeiture may be set aside in the case of a defendant who has failed to appear except upon the approval of the judge who originally imposed the forfeiture.

3. When the condition of the bond has been satisfied or the forfeiture thereof has been set aside or permitted the Court shall exonerate the obligors and release any bail. A surety may be exonerated by a deposit of cash in the amount of the bond or by a timely surrender of the defendant into custody.

B. Court decisions

Indiana Lumbermen's Mut. Ins. Co. v. United States, App. D.C., 640 A.2d 1036 (1994).

1. Analysis factors in weighing set aside. -- In exercising its discretion in deciding whether to set aside a bond forfeiture, the trial court is to weigh a number of factors, including, but not limited to: the willfulness of the defendant's breach of bond conditions, the participation of the bondsman in rearresting the defendant, and the prejudice suffered by the government by the breach of the bond conditions.

2. Effect of surety's failure to fulfill duties. -- A surety which has failed to carry out its responsibilities has little, if any, basis for requesting the exercise of the court's discretion in its favor.

VI. Remission

A. MICHIE'S DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA COURT RULES ANNOTATED SUPERIOR COURT RULES OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE XI. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS. Rule 116. Bonds and sureties.

After entry of such judgment, the Court may remit it in whole or in part under the conditions applying to the setting aside of forfeiture in subparagraph (2) of this section.

B.Court decisions

Allegheny Mut. Cas. Co. v. United States, App. D.C., 622 A.2d 1099 (1993).

Setting aside of bond forfeiture is within trial court's discretion. -- Whether the trial court should set aside a forfeiture of a surety bond is within the court's sound discretion, and the trial court's decision will be reversed only upon a showing of abuse of discretion.

Bail Agent’s Arrest Authority

(The statutes do not appear to provide any explicit arrest authority for bail agents. However, the power to arrest seems to be implied given the function of bail bonding business as described in the statutes. Common law tradition is also almost certain to provide this authority).

VIII. Other Noteworthy Provisions

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA CODE 1981 PART IV. CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE AND PRISONERS. TITLE 23. CRIMINAL PROCEDURE. CHAPTER 11. Professional Bondsmen.§ 23-1103 Procuring business through official or attorney for a consideration prohibited.

A. It shall be unlawful for any bondsman, either directly or indirectly, to give, donate, lend, contribute, or to promise to give, donate, lend, or contribute any money, property, entertainment, or other thing of value whatsoever to any attorney at law, police officer, deputy United States marshal, jailer, probation officer, clerk, or other attache of a criminal court, or public official of any character, for procuring or assisting in procuring any person to employ the bondsman to execute as surety any bond for compensation in any criminal case in the District of Columbia.

B. It shall be unlawful for any attorney at law, police officer, deputy United States marshal, jailer, probation officer, clerk, bailiff, or other attache of a criminal court, or public official of any character, to accept or receive from a bondsman any money, property, entertainment, or other thing of value whatsoever for procuring or assisting in procuring a person to employ a bondsman to execute as surety any bond for compensation in a criminal case in the District of Columbia.

C. § 23-1104 Attorneys procuring employment through official or bondsman for a consideration prohibited.

It shall be unlawful for any attorney at law, either directly or indirectly, to give, loan, donate, contribute, or to promise to give, loan, donate, or contribute any money, property, entertainment, or other thing of value whatsoever to, or to split or divide any fee or commission with, any bondsman, police officer, deputy United States marshal, probation officer, bailiff, clerk, or other attache of any criminal court for causing or procuring or assisting in causing or procuring a person to employ the attorney to represent him in a criminal case in the District of Columbia.

D. § 23-1105 Receiving other than regular fee for bonding prohibited; bondsmen prohibited from endeavoring to secure dismissal or settlement.

It shall be lawful to charge for executing a bond in a criminal case in the District of Columbia, but it shall be unlawful for a bondsman, either directly or indirectly, to charge, accept, or receive a sum of money, or other thing of value, other than the regular fee for bonding, from a person for whom he has executed bond, for any other service whatever performed in connection with any indictment, information, or charge upon which the person is bailed or held in the District of Columbia. It also shall be unlawful for any bondsman to settle, or attempt to settle, or to procure or attempt to procure the dismissal of any indictment, information, or charge against any person in custody or held upon bond in the District of Columbia, with a court, or with the prosecuting attorney in a court in the District of Columbia.

E. § 23-1107 Bondsmen prohibited from entering place of detention unless requested by prisoner; record of visit to be kept.

It shall be unlawful for a bondsman to enter a police precinct, jail, prisoner's dock, house of detention, or other place where persons in the custody of the law are detained in the District of Columbia for the purpose of obtaining employment as a bondsman, without having been previously called by a person detained or by some relative or other authorized person acting for or on behalf of the person detained. Whenever a bondsman enters a police precinct, jail, prisoner's dock, house of detention, or other place where persons in the custody of the law are detained in the District of Columbia, he shall forthwith give to the person in charge thereof his mission there and the name of the person calling him and requesting him to come to such place. That information shall be recorded by the person in charge of the place of detention and preserved as a public record, and the failure of the bondsman to give that information, or the failure of the person in charge of the place of detention to make and preserve a record of that information, shall constitute a violation of this chapter.

F. § 23-1109 Giving advance information of proposed raid.

It shall not be unlawful for any police or other peace officer, in conducting any raid or in executing any search warrant or warrant of arrest, to communicate to any person engaged in the bonding business, any fact necessary to enable the officer to obtain information necessary to carry out the raid or execute the process.

IX. Noteworthy State Appellate Decisions

A. Indiana Lumbermen’s Mut. Ins. Co. v. U.S. 640 A.2d 1036 D.C. Apr 25, 1994 1. Surety filed motion to set aside forfeiture of personal appearance bond. The Superior Court of the District of Columbia, Robert I. Richter, J., denied motion, and surety appealed. The Court of Appeals, Sullivan, J., held that:
(1) trial court did not abuse its discretion in denying surety's motion without an evidentiary hearing, and
(2) trial court did not abuse its discretion in denying motion to vacate forfeiture. Affirmed.

2. Trial court was not required to conduct hearing on motion to set aside forfeiture of personal appearance bond, where defendant's attorney made no attempt to explain or justify his client's absence, record did not show that surety ever appeared before trial court prior to defendant's apprehension with explanation of mitigating circumstances, and surety did not demonstrate that despite its most diligent efforts to locate defendant, it could not do so before date of scheduled status hearing. Criminal Rule 116(h).

B. Allegheny Mut. Cas. Co. v. U.S. 622 A.2d 1099 D.C. Jan 29, 1993

Bail bondsman appealed from order of the Superior Court, Colleen Kollar- Kotelly, Trial Judge, denying motion to set aside bond forfeiture after nonappearance of defendant at sentencing. The Court of Appeals, Sullivan, J., held that trial court erred in not granting evidentiary hearing on motion because it was not in possession of all facts necessary to make proper determination. Reversed and remanded.

C. American Bankers Ins. Co. v. U.S. 596 A.2d 598 D.C. Sep 13, 1991

Bonding company brought motion to set aside and vacate forfeiture of appearance bond. The Superior Court, Evelyn E.C. Queen, J., denied motion. Bonding company appealed. The Court of Appeals, Belson, Senior Judge, held that:
(1) bonding company had constructive notice that defendant did not appear at status hearing or at trial and that, consequently, appearance bond was forfeited, and therefore, court's delay in notifying company of forfeiture for nearly 13 months did not violate due process, and
(2) bonding company agent had apparent authority to execute appearance bond, and therefore bonding company was liable on forfeited bond. Affirmed.

D. United States v. Nell 515 F.2d 1351 D.C. Cir. 1975

Hearing on motion to set aside bond forfeiture. -- Given a proffer of data regarding asserted departures from the customary practice by the bail agency and the clerk's office, a bondsman's assistance in apprehending the defendant and the delay or prejudice suffered by the government by the breach, it was error for the trial judge not to have held an evidentiary hearing on motion of bondsman to set aside bond forfeiture.

E. Akins v. United States 679 A.2d 1017 App. D.C., (1996).

Bail bondsmen are not subject to the Fourth Amendment. -- Bail bondsmen are not subject to the Fourth Amendment as it regards the seizure of persons or personal effects.

X. Bounty Hunter Provisions

At this time, there appear to be no specific regulations for "Bounty Hunters" in the District of Columbia statutes.

XI. Online Case Checking

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    Total solar eclipse 2017: When is it, why is it happening and how can I see it in the UK?What's happening? On Monday, August 21, 2017, all of North America will witness an eclipse of the sun for the first time in 99 years, where the Moon will pass in front of the Sun casting darkness across swathes of the Earth's surface. Dubbed the Great American Eclipse, the moment will see the Sun, the Moon and the Earth become perfectly aligned in a once-in-a-lifetime celestial spectacle seen from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean. Although we won't see a perfect alignment in the UK, we will be able to see a partial eclipse (where the moon covers only a part of the sun). 10 amazing places in America to watch the 2017 solar eclipse Who will see it? Everyone in North America, parts of South America, Africa and Europe - including the UK - will see at least a partial solar eclipse, where the moon covers only a part of the sun. However, 14 states across the United States will experience a total solar eclipse with more than two minutes of darkness descending in the middle of the day over the course of 100 minutes. More than 12 million Americans live inside the path of totality and more than half of the nation live within 400 miles of it. Millions more are expected to travel to cities along the path to witness the phenomenon.  Where and when to see the eclipse What causes an eclipse? The diameter of the Sun is 400 times that of the Moon but it lies 400 times further away - which means if you are in exactly the right alignment on the surface of the Earth at the right time, you will see the two celestial bodies overlap exactly. What creates a total solar eclipse Where can I see the eclipse in the UK? Sadly Brits won't get a total eclipse like our friends across the pond, but we will be treated to a slight partial eclipse which will still be worth watching.  It will be visible in parts of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland from around 19:35 on August 21 - but make sure you're in a spot where there's no cloud.  UK eclipse circumstances for August 21 2017 What areas will see total blackout? Anyone within the path of totality will see the sky become dark for several minutes as the moon completely covers the sun. The path is relatively thin, around 70 miles wide, and stretches from Salem, Oregon to Charleston, South Carolina. It will first be seen at Lincoln Beach, Oregon at 9:05 PDT, with totality beginning at 10:16 PDT. Over the next 90 minutes, it will cross through Oregon, Idaho, Wyoming, Montana, Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and North and end near Charleston, South Carolina at 14:28 EDT. The lunar shadow will leave the US at 04:09 EDT. Its longest duration will be near Carbondale, Illinois, where the sun will be completely covered for two minutes and 40 seconds. What time can I see the total eclipse? Here are the mid-eclipse times for some of the major towns and cities along the path of totality, according to Nasa. All times are local.  Where to see it | The Great American solar eclipse Will there be a live stream? Yes - Nasa will host an Eclipse Megacast for four hours during the eclipse which will be picked up by local, national and international TV stations. You can also follow all the action via the Telegraph. How can I see it safely? Never look directly at the Sun, even through sunglasses or dark material such as a bin liner or photographic negative. Makeshift filters may not screen out the harmful infrared radiation that can burn the retina of the eye risking permanent eye damage and blindness. Also, viewers must never use binoculars or a telescope. Wear special eclipse viewing glasses - not ordinary sunglasses - or construct a simple pinhole camera which projects an image of the Sun onto a blank piece of paper. Solar eclipse: how to watch the eclipse safely When will Britain next see a solar eclipse? There was a pretty spectacular eclipse in Britain in March 2015, but the last total eclipse in the UK was in August 1999. You might be waiting a while for the next decent one too - it won't take place until August 12, 2026. On that date up to 95 per cent of the Sun will be obscured. Britain will not see a total solar eclipse until September 23, 2090. How we watched the 1999 solar eclipse - in 90 seconds 01:42 Total solar eclipses in history Eclipses have both fascinated and terrified civilisations for centuries. When King Henry I of England, the son of William the Conqueror, died in 1133, his death happened to coincide with a total solar eclipse plummeting the nation into darkness for four minutes and 38 seconds. Historian William of Malmesbury wrote in 1140 that "the darkness was so great that people at first thought the world was ending."


    'Unraveling our national fabric': Romney condemns Trump after CharlottesvilleMitt Romney said Trump’s comments after violence in Charlottesville had caused ‘the vast heart of America to mourn’. Mitt Romney, the 2012 Republican presidential nominee, warned of an “unraveling of our national fabric” on Friday as he excoriated Donald Trump over his defence of people involved in a neo-Nazi rally. Nearly a week after white nationalists led a bloody protest against the removal of a statue of Confederate general Robert E Lee, Trump continues to face backlash for blaming “both sides” for the violence in Charlottesville, Virginia.


    Children in conflict zones vulnerable to killing, rape: UN draftChildren are particularly vulnerable in the conflicts raging around the globe, according to a draft UN report that specifically pointed the finger of blame in Yemen at the Saudi-led coalition. The draft of an annual UN report on the impact of armed conflict on children lists the countries and entities accused of recruiting child soldiers and using children as weapons of war. "I am highly concerned by the scale and severity of the grave violations that were committed against children in 2016, which included alarming levels of killing and maiming, recruitment and use and denial of humanitarian access," Secretary General Antonio Guterres says in the draft seen by AFP.


    'One of the Most Difficult Scenes.' 3 Kids Found Killed Inside Suburban Home'One of the most difficult scenes'


    Lebanese army, Hezbollah announce offensives against Islamic State on Syrian borderBy Tom Perry and Angus McDowall BEIRUT (Reuters) - The Lebanese army launched an offensive on Saturday against an Islamic State enclave on the northeastern border with Syria, as the Lebanese Shi'ite group Hezbollah announced an assault on the militants from the Syrian side of the frontier. The Lebanese army operation got underway at 5 a.m. (0200 GMT), targeting Islamic State positions near the town of Ras Baalbek with rockets, artillery and helicopters, a Lebanese security source said.


    Girl, 11, makes incredible recovery after friend poured boiling water over her during sleepoverAn 11-year-old girl has made an incredible recovery after a friend poured boiling water over her face at a sleepover. Jamoneisha “Jamoni” Merritt was rushed to hospital with horrific burns after Aniya Grant Stuart, 12, splashed scalding water onto her while she slept at a house in the Bronx, New York, on 7 August. Aniya was charged with felony assault after the incident, which was said to be a "prank" gone horribly wrong.


    Glitch Or Promo? Amazon Echo Dot Is Free Right NowThe Amazon Echo Dot is free on Amazon at checkout thanks to an apparently unlisted "Audible Promo" offer.


    2-Week-Old Orphaned Piglet Comforts Kitten Friend as She Suffers SeizureSriracha the kitten was diagnosed with a neurological disorder called cerebellar hypoplasia and suffers from seizures.


    Once homeless, Iraq War veteran moves into unique new homeMIDWAY CITY, Calif. (AP) — Vernon Poling was 44 years old when he finally got a home of his own.


    Twitter Blasts Ex-Google Employee Who Says Being Conservative Is Like Being Gay In The '50sEx-Google employee James Damore made quite a disturbing false equivalency when he compared being a conservative at the tech company to being gay in the 1950s.


    The storm around America's statues isn't about history. It's about whiteness | Eddie S Glaude, JrConfederate statues are part of a politics that trades on white fears and cultural wars that scapegoat black and brown people. During his infamous press conference this Tuesday, as he vehemently defended his claim that both sides were to blame for the violence in Charlottesville, Donald Trump declared “many of these people were there to protest the taking down of the statue of Robert E Lee. “Not all of those people were white supremacists,” he said.


    State funeral for Pakistan's 'Mother Teresa'Ruth Pfau, a German nun who devoted her life to combatting leprosy in Pakistan, was buried with full state honours on Saturday, in an unprecedented service for a foreign Christian in the Muslim-majority country. Pfau, who died at the age of 87 on August 10 was known locally as Pakistan's Mother Teresa. Pakistan President Mamnoon Hussain attended the state funeral service at St Patrick's Cathedral in the city, where hundreds of people gathered to pay their respects.


    Oxford University employee and US academic brought to Chicago to face murder chargesTwo employees of elite universities charged in the fatal stabbing of a 26-year-old hair stylist were returned to Chicago early Saturday to face charges of first-degree murder in the brutal killing. Chicago police escorted fired Northwestern University professor Wyndham Lathem, 43, and Oxford University financial officer Andrew Warren, 56, from Northern California, where they surrendered peacefully on Aug. 4 after an eight-day, nationwide manhunt. Detectives were questioning the men Saturday. They could appear in court as early as Sunday. The men are accused of killing Trenton James Cornell-Duranleau, a Michigan native who had been living in Chicago, last month in Lathem's high-rise Chicago condo. Chicago police have said Cornell-Duranleau suffered more than 40 stab wounds, including "mutilations," to his upper body. Authorities say the attack was so violent the blade of the knife they believe was used was broken. They found Cornell-Duranleau's body July 27 after the building's front desk received an anonymous call that a crime had occurred on the 10th floor. He had been dead more than 12 hours. By then, authorities say Lathem and Warren had fled the city. According to autopsy results released Friday by the Cook County medical examiner's office, Cornell-Duranleau had methamphetamine in his system at the time of his death. Wyndham Lathem Credit: Chicago Police Department/PA Police say Lathem and Cornell-Duranleau, who moved to Chicago from the Grand Rapids, Michigan, area about a year ago, had a personal relationship, though they have not described the nature of it or a motive for the attack. It's unclear what the relationship was between Lathem, Cornell-Duranleau and Warren, who's British. He arrived in the U.S. three days before the killing, after being reported missing in Great Britain. Lathem, a microbiologist who's been on Northwestern's faculty since 2007 but was not teaching at the time of the attack, was terminated by the university for fleeing from police when there was an arrest warrant out for him. Investigators said the day after the crime was committed Lathem and Warren drove about 80 miles (128 kilometers) northwest of Chicago to Lake Geneva, Wisconsin. One of the men made a $1,000 donation to a local library in Cornell-Duranleau's name. Lake Geneva authorities said the man making the donation didn't give his name. Trenton James Cornell-Duranleau Credit: Facebook At another point after the killing, Lathem sent a video to friends and relatives apologizing for his involvement in the crime, which he called the "biggest mistake of my life." The video raised concern among investigators that Lathem might kill himself. Lathem and Warren both appeared in court in California last week, where they agreed to return to Illinois to face charges. An attorney for Lathem, Kenneth H. Wine, called him a "gentle soul" and said "what he is accused of is totally contrary to the way he has lived his entire life." Wine said Lathem intends to plead not guilty to the charges. Warren was represented by a public defender during a brief appearance in a San Francisco court. She said he is "presumed innocent," but declined to comment further. 


    The Latest: About 20 protesters linger near Dallas cemeteryDALLAS (AP) — The Latest on a conservative rally and counterdemonstration in Boston and around the country (all times local):


    Mexico City fishermen fight to save Aztec floating gardensRoberto Altamirano has the lake to himself as he casts his glistening net onto the still water in a perfect circle, lets it sink, then slowly pulls it in. It comes back bearing a large haul of tilapia and carp -- and that is exactly the problem. Altamirano is one of just 20 or so fishermen who remain in the floating gardens of Xochimilco, an idyllic network of lakes, canals and artificial islands improbably tucked into the urban sprawl of Mexico City.


    Bob Lutz on Why Ford Ousted Mark FieldsHow could Ford's Mark Fields compete with Elon Musk's tunnels and spaceships?


    How to watch the eclipse without eclipse glassesWith the solar eclipse just days away, everyone is trying to get their hands on a last-minute pair of eclipse glasses. But what if you don't have $250 to spend on a pair because you spent too much money on pizza the night before? In a new video, Pizza Hut demonstrates how to use last night's pizza box to make your own  eclipse viewer, so you can enjoy the event without burning your eyes. All you need is a cardboard pizza box, foil, scissors, pen, tape and a sheet of white paper — all which would probably cost you less than 20 bucks. According to Business Insider, the finished product becomes a pinhole camera, which harnesses a property of light called diffraction to bend and magnify light. In this case, that's the sun as it eclipses. It won't allow you to look directly at the eclipse, but it's definitely better than hurting your eyes trying to look at the event without glasses. Sorry Pizza Hut, you could do this with any pizza box/cardboard, but kudos for trying to keep people from burning their eyes out. 


    Storm rips through Austrian beer tent, killing twoZURICH (Reuters) - An intense storm ripped through a beer tent in northwestern Austria, killing two people and injuring at least 40 more, Austrian media reported late on Friday. About 700 people were in the tent erected for a local volunteer fire department festival in St. Johann am Walde, located northeast of Salzburg, when the storm hit suddenly at about 2030 GMT. A man and a woman, both around 20 years old, died, the Austrian Press Agency reported. Of those injured, 10 suffered serious injuries, media reported, without providing specifics. ...


    The Clever Way High School Boys Protested Their School's Sexist Dress CodeStudents from San Benito High School in Hollister, California, are protesting their school’s sexist dress code in a pretty awesome way.


    Steve Bannon out: Trump 'decides to fire chief strategist'Donald Trump has told aides he has decided to remove Steve Bannon from his post as chief White House advisor after seven contentious months in the West Wing. It is unclear when Mr Bannon will leave 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, however. Mr Bannon initially joined Donald Trump's 2016 presidential campaign one year ago, and gained notoriety - deservedly, or not - for his high profile role at the tail end of a campaign that ultimately shocked analysts with Mr Trump's surprise electoral win.


    What's a total solar eclipse and why this one is so unusualCAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. (AP) — Total solar eclipses occur every year or two or three, often in the middle of nowhere like the South Pacific or Antarctic. What makes Monday's eclipse so special is that it will cut diagonally across the entire United States.


    Furor erupts over killing of teenager as Philippines drugs war escalatesBy Erik De Castro and Manuel Mogato MANILA (Reuters) - The Philippines police came under pressure on Friday to explain the killing of a high-school student after the 17-year-old became one of at least 80 people shot dead this week in an escalation of President Rodrigo Duterte's ruthless war on drugs. Television channels aired CCTV footage that showed Kian Loyd Delos Santos being carried by two men to the place where his body was later found, raising doubt about an official report that said he was shot because he fired at police officers first. Witnesses told the ABS-CBN channel that the teenager did not have a firearm and police officers at the scene handed him a gun, asked him to fire the weapon and run.


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